SYG2323: Criminology


Writing Assignment (WA 2): Secondary Data Analysis (your research sources)

Total Points Possible: 50 pts.

(See Syllabus for Due Date) ________

First you must pick a topic to write your final research paper on (it must be a criminology related topic).

Then find at least two credible journal articles (hard copy journals, or electronic journal via Santa Fe’s

virtual library) on your research topic. These sources must be scholarly research based articles that have

been published, and have authors. Then write a summary analysis of the two journal articles you have

found for your research paper.

You also need to write the thesis statement, theory and primary data methodology explorations for your

final research paper. Write your introduction which tells the reader what will be explored in your term

paper including your thesis statement. Use your textbook to define and then apply a theory we have

covered in class to your research topic. Next use your textbook to define and then explore a

methodology that you would use to collect primary data on your research topic if you had the

opportunity in the future (explore examples).

Again you must demonstrate the ability to know when and how to use APA style citations to give credit

to your sources for quotes and paraphrases, and their ideologies, definitions, dates and statistics. You

also need to create an APA style reference page (at the end of your essay). Your essay format should

follow the research process listed below. I expect you to make corrections based on my feedback and

use this data in your final research paper. Four-page maximum length.

Show your ability to apply terminology from the assigned readings and classroom discussion into your

essay when appropriate. It is very important to note that this class is a discipline specific writing class

and we will be using APA style citations. You must demonstrate the ability to use the APA style tools

you have learned in-class in all your writing assignments this semester.

Type your name, writing assignment number, class meeting time and date in the upper right/left hand

corner, this header should be single spaced. The writing assignment should be in proper left align

paragraph format. The body of the text should be double spaced using a 10 or 12 font size with 1”

borders. To guarantee the assignments do not accumulate late points they must be turned in on or

before the beginning of the class period of the assigned due date. If you send the assignments as an E-

mail attachment, make sure your file is sent as a MS Word or Rich Text Format (rtf) document or I may

not be able to open it—which is the same as not receiving it. Remember, there is a loss of 5 points per

each day the assignment is late (see syllabus).

The Research Process Explored:


-Introduction (thesis Statement)

-Methodology: Ana

Granadillo 1
Granadillo 2
María Fernanda Granadillo F 27 with some work you can turn this into a good final research paper.
Professor David Manning
22 March 2022
3 days late but only 2 days deduction points -10
-Content: you should have used subheaders for this assignment and you if following instructions, you wouldn’t have an abstract either. If paragraph two is your introduction, it’s okay but the thesis statement doesn’t really stand out as a clear focus point. If paragraph one is your introduction sentence three would make a better thesis statement but the last sentence needs more detail, maybe you mean: fully structured and fluent approach to understanding human trafficking? -4
-Theory: pick a theory we covered in class, required that you use our textbook authors to define that theory and then apply it to your topic in your own words to support your thesis statement. -5
-Primary data: you said you would use interviews so, start by using our textbook to define it and then explore how you would use it to collect primary data. You need to provide four or five sample questions you would ask. -3
-Citations: there are several places you need in text citations, see below. You listed one source twice on the reference page and you need to add Adler, Mueller and Laufer (2022) to the reference age as a source. -3
Human Trafficking
Criminology relates to different topics. The research focuses on human trafficking as a discipline of criminology. The study incorporates various data collection methods such as observation and internet exploration. This article integrates knowledge from all sources to find out more about human trafficking, the possible reasons for the recent increase of related cases, and provide possible solutions as suggested. The article also aims in providing a fully structured and fluent approach to human trafficking to the reader.
Human trafficking has been a global crisis existing since the 13th century. However, the action violates human rights and the mission to end modern-day slavery. Human trafficking can actively be done where people are forced to work, enslaved people, or commercial sexual exploitation; otherwise, passive human traffic exists in cases of forced marriage. There is an urgent need to end modern-day slavery, promote equality consciousness, and promote humanity.
Human trafficking has existed for centuries, and the misled culture seems to continue even today. According to the article, the slave trade still exists between developing and affluential countries. During the research, secondary methods of data collection used include; government publications, public records, documents, and internet exploration.
According to government publications on global human trafficking analysis, 70 percent of developing countries experience the challenge (of human trafficking?) directly or indirectly (name, year). The number of trafficking victims is estimated to be 27 million globally, with between one and two

An Exploration of the Insanity Plea

Jane Doe Sample


Santa Fe College



The insanity plea, which states that a defendant is not guilty by reasons of insanity, is a very

complex defense that is rarely used in the court systems. By exploring secondary data it is found that the

insanity plea results in numerous questions for the judge and jury, such as whether the defendant had

impaired functioning due to a mental illness when the crime was committed. Further research shows that

defendants are very unlikely to want to plead insane, due to the possibility of a longer sentence at an

inpatient care facility than they would have had in jail, if they just plead guilty. By exploring three court

cases where the insanity plea had been considered more difficulties with using the insanity plea will be

brought to attention; for example if the defendant does not want to plead insane. As a result of applying

the trait theory, both psychological and biological theories, defendants could argue that specific traits

made them more likely to commit crime or that they were unable to fight these urges. Overall this paper

will give valuable information on the insanity plea and its use in the court system.


The insanity plea can been used in the court system to argue that a defendant is not guilty by

means of insanity. However, this form of defense can cause many questions to the court system; through

the analysis of secondary data these questions will be more widely explored. Furthermore the trait theory,

from both psychological and biological views, will be applied to the insanity defense in an attempt to tie

the two together. Finally, a possible mean of collecting primary data on the insanity plea will be explored.

Overall, the purpose of this paper is to examine the facts of the insanity plea and how it is used in court

cases, focusing on some of the different biological, psychological, and other factors that are considered

when insanity is being claimed.

Methodology: Secondary Data

According to Smith (2012) the insanity plea, also referred to as insanity defense, can be used in

court to prove that the defendant is not guilty of the crime that they committed by reason of insanity. The

insanity plea is rarely used; less than 1% of defendants attempt to use it and a very small percentage are

successful, however media coverage of the rare, prominent cases which employ it often create the


impression that it is much more common (Smith, 2012). In cases where the defendant successfully uses

the insanity plea, they are found not legally responsible even though they committed the crime, although

proving insanity can be quite difficult. In order for a defendant to be allowed to enter a plea of insanity

they must be suffering from a mental disorder, there had to have been a significant impaired practical

functioning at the time that the crime was


APA Source Citation

-(Author, Year, Page or Para. #)

-(organization, Year, Page or Para. #) – no author

-(Title, Year, Page or Para. #)

-APA cares about the date the article was published.

-for both quotes and paraphrasing APA style in-text citation is the same.

Should I use this source or not (critical thinking and APA)

-Can you verify the information

-does it make sense

-Authority—is the author making statements outside their major

-Bias-what’s the authors purpose for writing the article, is it scientific or propaganda

-Coverage-college research or research for a corporation

-when was it published

.org what is the goal

.net personal website (do not use)

.com selling something (do not use)

.gov best sites of statistics

.edu good sites

Examples of APA Style Reference page citation (hanging indent):

Reference page for your textbook:

Adler, F., G. Mueller, & W. Laufer. (2007). Criminology and the Criminal Justice System (6

edition). New

York, NY. McGraw Hill

Harding, David. (2009). Violence, Older Peers, and the Socialization of Adolescent Boys in Disadvantaged

Neighborhoods. American Sociological Review. 74, (3), 445-464.

Online articles

-Reference page URL – Uniform Resource Locator:

Brody, J. (2007, December 11). Mental Reserves Keep Brain Agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from

-Reference Page for journals use DOI – digital object identifier:

Davis, J. (2009). Economic Status and Crime. American Society of Criminology, 24, (4) 225-229. Doi:


[Title Here, up to 12 Words, on One to Two Lines]
Maria Fernanda Granadillo
Santa Fe College
D 65
-Abstract: could use a few more key points from secondary data analysis. -2
-Content and Structure: instead of title here there should be a title. You only have one journal source but, the instruction say you needed three (content lacking). -15
-Citations: a couple in text citations were needed. Needed to know when and is a word and when it’s a symbol for in text citations within parenthesis (Adler, Mueller, & Laufer, 2022). A few issues with your parenthesis around the year or around (name, year, p. #). -5
-Theory: needed to pick a theory like conflict theory. Then use our textbook to define it and then in your own words apply it to your topic. -5
-Primary Data: interviews needed to be defined and your focus should have been on who you would have conducted these interviews without journal analysis here. -5
-Findings: this section should be a brief recap of the key points explored in your secondary data analysis section. Your primary data section was hypothetical not actual. -5


Human trafficking has been a global crisis existing since the 13th century. However, the action violates human rights and the mission to end modern-day slavery. Human trafficking can actively be done where people are forced to work, enslaved people, or commercial sexual exploitation; otherwise, passive human traffic exists in cases of forced marriage. There is an urgent need to end modern-day slavery, promote equality consciousness, and promote humanity.


Criminology relates to different topics. The research focuses on human trafficking as a discipline of criminology. The study incorporates various data collection methods such as observation and internet exploration. This article integrates knowledge from all sources to find out more about human trafficking, the possible reasons for the recent increase of related cases, and provide possible solutions as suggested.

Methodology: Secondary Data

Human trafficking has existed for centuries, and the misled culture continues today. According to Name (year) the article, the slave trade still exists between developing and affluential countries . During the research, secondary methods of data collection used include; government publications, public records, documents, and internet exploration (Adler, Mueller, and Laufer,2007).
According to government publications on global human trafficking analysis, 70 percent of developing countries experience the challenge directly or indirectly (Cockbain & Bowers, 2019). The number of trafficking victims is estimated to be 27 million globally, with between one and two million trafficked each year internationally (Cockbain & Bowers, 2019). The clear case is in Pakistan, where sex trafficking is often seen as a regular activity to sustain basic needs.

The problem has become a global crisis in which fewer efforts to provide a long-last



Chapter 1:
The Changing Boundaries of

-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013, 2018 & 2022);

Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015, 2018 & 2022).

Exploring the need for criminologists

Criminology & the phenomenon of crime through
natural disasters.

• October 29, 2012 Sandy hits Jersey shore. Billions in damages,
hundreds of deaths.

• March 11, 2011 the most powerful earthquake hit Japan. Tens of
thousands of deaths. No civil unrest or looting—they waited with
civility for a fair distribution of limited supplies.

• January 12, 2010 a 7.0 earthquake hit Port au-Prince, Haiti. Approx.
316,000 dead and without a discernable police presence violence
erupted marked by looting and gang related gunfire.

• August 29, 2005, Katrina devastated New Orleans. Looter took over
the city and 1,500 police on search and rescue were reassigned to
restore oder.



Covid-19 Pandemic Issues in 2020

• Adler, Mueller and Laufer (2022) state that early on in 2020 it
appeared that the pandemic lockdowns and stay at home orders led
to a decrease in drug and violent crimes.
• However there was an increase in domestic violence.

• We will see later on the total cost of the pandemic resulting from stay at
home orders, masking and vaccination mandates (such as increases in mental
health issues and suicides rates).

Globalization Effects on criminology

• In past societies all produced their own goods.

• Today, worlds economy increasing becoming a “Global Village”.

• Globalization expands the need for criminologists to explore and find
solutions for evolving social issues.
• Economic, Human Rights, and Environmental crimes.



Human Trafficking and Globalization

• USA alone gets approx. 100,000 humans trafficked for illegal sex and
labor exploitation per year.
• Human trafficking is to the 21st Century what the cold war was to the 20th


• Sex Trafficking worldwide is over 20.9 million. 98% are women and
• 2 million children per year.

What Criminologists knew about these changing

• Criminologists knew looting was a stage after a natural disaster—due to past

• Criminologists understand globalization increases our risk to transnational crime
and shifting class structures within societies around the world (including our

• Do not be deceived by the media and their symbiotic relationship with
legislatures (Adler, Muller, & Laufer, 2022, p. 13).
• Police shootings, the global village & the econ., school to prison pipeline.
• Where should we focus as criminologists?

• Criminologists are needed to make better policies to protect society from the
harms of crime, from violence to fraud, corporate crimes, political and
transnational crimes.

• In all human activity deviance is possible.



Defining Terrorism
another changing boundary of criminology



Chapter 10: Violent Crimes
-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007,

2013, 2018, & 2022); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007,
2013, 2015, 2018, & 2022).

Violence is the use or threat of force.


• Killing of human being by another.
• Justifiable homicide: sanctioned by law (not always illegal then).

• Criminal homicide
• Murder: intentional killing of another person with malice aforethought.

• First degree: premeditated and deliberate

• Second degree: intentional without premeditation

• Felony murder: intention to commit some other felony.



Unlawful killing of another person without malice

Voluntary Manslaughter
• Killing committed intentionally

but without malice.
• Example: in the heat of passion or

in response to strong provocation.

Involuntary Manslaughter
• Killing unintentionally but

recklessly by consciously
disregarding a substantial and
unjustifiable risk.

• Negligent homicide (some states)
• Criminal liability for grossly negligent

killing in situations where the offender
assumed a lesser risk.

• Diane Whipple killed in her hallway by
neighbors dogs (Siegel, 2015).

Homicide Rates in the United States
• Homicide rates are high in USA but are steadily declining.
• 2018 approximately 16,214 murders nationwide.

• 5:100,000 in 2018; 4.5:100,000 in 2014 which was down 6.1% since 2005
• In 1994 it was 9:100,000 (Adler, et al., 2022).

• Regional difference (cities like Chicago, Baltimore, Detroit over rural areas).
• South accounts for 46% of homicides
• Midwest 22%
• West 19.9%
• Northeast 11.9%
• Cities like Chicago

• 1950 most had jobs by 1990 only 1 in 3 had a typical work week.
• 2016 Chicago had the highest homicide rates for any city in US history.

• States: District of Columbia highest, South Carolina 1st, Florida 5th, Michigan
10th, and Maine lowest.



Characteristics of Murder

• Approximately 78% of murder victims are males.

• Nearly half between 20-34 years old.

• While USA doesn’t have highest homicide rates we do have highest
rates for those under age 15.

• Murder tends to be Intra-racial but not intra-gendered.
• Approx. 90% blacks killed by blacks and 85% of whites by whites (Siegel, 2015).

• Black women account for 75% of our nations female murders (Adler, et.,

• Stranger homicides only account for about 7.5% in 2018.

• USA highest risk of being murdered by family and acquaintances.

Characteristics of Murder cont’d

• Gang Homicides
• Attributed to social disorganization and lack of economic opportunity

• Killers are generally younger

• 2.5 X more participants.

• Twice as likely to not know the victims

• Increased by stander victims due to drive by shootings.



Types of Murder

• Serial Murder (serial killers):
• killing of several victims over a period of time.

• Sociopaths: lack internal controls, disregard values, and dominate ot



Social Control Theory
-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013, 2018, & 2022); Siegel
(2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015, 2018, & 2022).


Social Control theory
Social control theory focuses on techniques and strategies that regulate human behavior leading
to conformity or obedience to society’s rules.

Influences (family & school, religious beliefs, moral values, friends, & beliefs regarding



Theories of Social Control

Explore the legal system, particularly law

Powerful groups

Social & economic government directives


Focus on informal systems

Data based on individuals

Examines one’s internal control system

Travis Hirschi
Social Bonds

Attachment: to parents, teachers, peers

Commitment: to conventional lines of action
◦ Educational goals

Involvement: with activities that promote the interests of society
◦ Homework or after school programs

Beliefs: acceptance of societies values
◦ Belief that law are fair

Hirshi’s Hypothesis was that Stronger the bonds = less delinquency & weaker bonds = increased
risk of delinquency

Scientific Research shows support:
◦ Hirshi conducted a self-report survey on 4,077 high school students in CA.



Critics of Hirschi’s Bond theory
Criticism of social bond theory

◦ The influence of friendship
◦ Drug abuser stick together

◦ Failure to achieve
◦ Failing in school = few legitimate means

◦ Deviant parents and peers
◦ Gang member also create social bonds.

◦ Mistaken causal order
◦ Deviance may brake parental bonds

◦ Hirschi also counters the critics
◦ These bonds are weak and only created out of need – drug abuser will turn on one another.

Gresham Sykes and David Matza
Delinquency and Drift

◦ Most deviants also hold value in social norms.

◦ Must use tech. of neutralization to drift in and out of criminality.

Observation of neutralization:
◦ Criminals sometimes voice guilt over their illegal acts.

◦ Offenders frequently respect and admire honest, law abiding people (entertainers, & preachers).

◦ Criminal define whom they can victimize

◦ Criminals are not immune to the demands of conformity.
◦ They go to school, family functions and church.



Gresham Sykes and David Matza
Delinquency and Drift

Techniques of neutralization:
◦ Denial of Responsibility

◦ Not my fault – accident

◦ Denial of Injury – No one hurt

◦ Denial of the Victim – Victim is no saint

◦ Condemnation of the Condemner
◦ Everyone has done worse things

◦ Appeal to Higher Loyalties
◦ Couldn’t let my friends down

◦ Studies show most adolescents know when they deviate
◦ So they use neutralization techniques to justify their behavior.

◦ Critics: Many adolescents have no empathy.
◦ Crimes are most often intraracial and within familiar areas.




Chapter 4: Psychological & Biological
Perspectives (Trait Theory)

-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013,
2018, 2022); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015, 2018 &


Psychology explores psychosis as a cause of anti-social behavior and

Biology explores the physical explanation for psychotic and antisocial behavior.

Trait Theory: views criminality as abnormal products of psychological and
biological traits.

A Third factor: Social Environmental

Should the mentally ill be able to stand trail?

• Jared Lee Loughner story
• Oct. 2010 kicked out of college for outburst

• January 8, 2011 shot 19 including Congresswomen Gabrielle Gifford (6 died).

• May 25, 2011 ruled incompetent to stand trail

• June 26, 2011 removed from court for outburst.

• August 2012 deemed fit for trial.
• Sentence: life without parole.

• Should the mentally ill have access to guns?



Psychoanalytic Theory

• The psychoanalytic theory links criminality to three possible causes:
• A conscience so overbearing it arouses feelings of guilt.

• A conscience so weak it cannot control the individuals impulses.

• The need for immediate gratification

Sigmund Freud

• The 3 basic components of human psyche.
• Id: powerful urges and drives for gratification

• Ego: moderator between id and superego
• Immature with poor social skills

• Superego: moral code or conscience (moral standards)
• When week individuals don’t understand consequences of actions = criminality



Three Basic Principles of Psychologist Who Study Crime

• Actions and Behaviors of adults are understood in terms of childhood

• Behavior and unconscious motives are intertwined, this interaction
must be unraveled to understand criminality.

• Criminality is a representation of psychological conflict.

Lawrence Kohlberg
Moral Development Theory

• Moral Reasoning
• Pre-conventional level: Children’s moral rules and values consist of do’s and

don’ts to avoid punishment

• Conventional Level: Individuals believe in and adopt the values and rules of

• Post-conventional Level: Individuals examine customs and social rules based
on their own sense of human rights, moral principles and duties.



Social Learning Theory

• Delinquent behavior is learned through the same psychological
process as other behavior.

• Behavior is learned when it is reinforced or rewarded.

• Don’t reinforce bad behavior.

• Cognitive Theory
• How people perceive and mentally represent the world around them and

solve problems.

• Information Processing Theory
• How we store, encode, retrieve, and manipulate info to make decisions and

solve problems.

Observational Learning

• Albert Bandura says individuals learn violence and aggression through
behavior modeling.

• Children learn how to behave by fashioning their behavior after

• Mental S



Chapter 8:
Labeling, Conflict & Radical Theories
-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013, 2018,
& 2022); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015, 2018. & 2022).

Labeling Theory
or Social Reaction Theory

• Labeling theorist began to explore how and why certain acts were
defined as criminal or deviant while others were not, and how and
why certain people were defined as criminal or deviant.

• Howard S. Becker
• Deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a

consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an
“offender”. The deviant is one to whom that label has successfully been
applied, deviant behavior is behavior that people so label.

• When ones deviance is known they are segregated from society and labeled.
• This creates outsiders our outcasts.

• One begins to associate with others just like themselves.
• More people in society think and react to the outcaste as deviant.

• Ones self-image gradually changes.
• W. I. Thomas Theory



Frank Tannenbaum

Dramatization of Evil
• Criminals are created in a process of tagging, defining, segregating,

making conscious and self-conscious.

• It becomes a way of evoking the very traits that are complained of.

Edwin Lemert: Primary versus Secondary Deviance

• Primary deviation: initial deviant acts that bring on the first social
• These acts without labeling to not affect individual self-concept.

• Secondary deviation: the acts that follow societal response.
• The major concern is secondary deviance.

Edwin Schur
labeling theory

• Human behavior is deviant to the extent that it comes to be viewed
as involving a personally discreditable departure from a group’s
norms and expectations and elicits interpersonal and collective
reactions that serve to:
• “isolate”, “treat”, “correct”, or “punish” individuals engaged in such behavior.



Howard Becker
Moral Entrepreneurs make the rules

• Moral Entrepreneurs make the rules that define deviant behavior including

• The process becomes a political one pitting rule makers against rule

Labeling theory in application:

• Civil Rights movement – MLK

• Women’s liberation – voting and what job can I do

• Vietnam protesting, draft card burning
• Kent State 1970

• ACLU’s stance against racial profiling
• Black lives matter.

Empirical Evidence for Labeling
two studies

• Study One: 13 volunteers admitted into various mental hospitals.

• Study two: class and inequality in treatment of juvenile delinquency.
• Saints – owned cars, athletes, apologetic.

• Roughnecks – highly visible and outspoken.

• Once labeled part of a group, is it possible to exit?



Consensus Model

• Consensus Model assumes that member of society by and large agree
on what is right and wrong and that law is the codification of these
agreed-upon social va



Chapter 11: Property Crimes
-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007,

2013, 2018, & 2022); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007,
2013, 2015, 2018, & 2022).

Crimes Against Property

(Theft or Stealing)

• Larceny is the prototype of all property offences: purse snatching, shop
lifting, art theft, and vehicle theft.

• Larceny The most prevalent crime in the USA
• Elements of Larceny

• A trespassory
• Taking and
• Carrying away of
• Personal property
• Belonging to another
• With the intent to deprive the owner of the property permanently.

• Involves a trespass, taking for ones own use the property of another (without
permission), by means other than force or threats on the victim
• Or forcibly breaking into a persons home or workplace with the intent to deprive the owner

of their property permanently.



Extent of Larceny

• UCR reported 4.2 million thefts in 2018 a rate of 1,594.6: 100,000
• Down some from 2014 when it was 5.8 million.
• NCVS 2 x UCR rates. Neither includes autos. Majority without victim contact.

• 2 types of thieves
• Amateur Thieves – occasional offenders who tend to be opportunists
• Professional Thieves – make a career of stealing
• Edwin Sutherland says the Professional Thieves have 5 characteristics:

• Well developed skills
• Status among subculture group
• Consensus of shared values
• Learn from and protect each other
• They are organized however loosely

Other Types of Larcenies

• Shoplifting – taking goods from retail stores
• Snitch theft for personal use or out of urge

• Many steal because they want merchandise but can afford it.

• Some thrill steal

• Boosters less than 10% intent to resale for profit

• Controlling shoplifting
• Less than 10% detected

• 45.5% are prosecuted.

• 41% White, 29% Black and 16% Hispanic.

• Over half of shoplifting between noon and 6 p.m.



Other Types of Larcenies
Art Theft

• Art theft has increased in recent years. It can include shoplifting,
burglary, and robbery to steal an individual art, illegally export art or
pillage archaeological sites.
• “1986 a gang of Irish thieves invaded an estate in Ireland with commando

precision and made off with 11” priceless paintings (Adler, Muller & Laufer,
2018, p. 263).

• Professional art theft requires ability to fence stolen goods.
• No one knows the value as one painting maybe worth $50 and another $50


• Movie and music Art Theft – is a trade mark violation
• A ring of bootlegger may earn up to $50,000 per week selling piracy videos.

Other Types of Larcenies
Motor vehicle theft

• Auto theft –the most reported crime

• 748,841 reported motor vehicle thefts in 2018 (228.9:100,000).
• Up 9% from 2014 but still overall down from 2009 (Adler, Mueller, & Laufer, 2022).

• Types of motor vehicle theft
• Strip and run
• Scissor job
• Valet theft
• Insurance fraud
• Carjacking is conside



Chapter 3:
Schools of Thought Throughout History

-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013 & 2018);
Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015 & 2018).

Classical Criminology (Rational Choice theory)

vs. Positivism

Classical Criminology (Rational Choice Theory)
Cesare Beccaria

• -On Crimes and Punishment

• -Father of Modern Criminology

• -Believed in Utilitarianism & Free



Beccaria’s Principles

• 1. Laws should be used to maintain the social contract.

• 2. Only legislators should create laws.

• 3. Judges should impose punishment only in accordance with the law.

• 4. Judges should not interpret the laws.

• 5. Punishment should be based on the pleasure/pain principle.

• 6. Punishment should be based on the act, not the actor.

Beccaria’s Principles

• 7. The punishment should be determined by the crime.

• 8. Punishment should be prompt and effective.

• 9. All people should be treated equally.

• 10. Capital punishment should be abolished.

• 11. The use of torture to gain confessions should be abolished.

• 12. It is better to prevent crimes than to punish them



Jeremey Bentham’s

• Bentham was concerned with achieving the “greatest happiness of
the greatest number”.

• Utilitarianism assumes all human actions are calculated in
accordance with their likelihood of bringing happiness (pleasure) or
unhappiness (pain).

• Bentham proposed the felicific Calculus (human calculators).
• Human behavior based on happiness

• Punishment as deterrent – certainty over severity

Positivist Criminology

• While classical criminologist – believe people rational choose to
commit crime.

• Positivist criminologist see criminal behavior stemming from three
• Biological determinism

• Psychological determinism

• Sociological determinism
• August Comte (1798-1857) French sociologist said real knowledge of social

phenomena has to be based on positivist (scientific) approach.

• At first didn’t take off.



Positivist & Biology
physical reasons for criminality

• Charles Darwin
• Wrote “Origin of Species” (1859)

• Says Animals evolved over time – survival of the fittest.

• In 1871 says he has traced humans origin to apes.

• Future biologist will build on Darwin’s work
• Red hair, cripples, and other would soon be viewed with suspicion.

• If two people were accused of a crime the uglier of them did it.

• Bio – criminal are born not made and can be identified by irregularities.

Biological Determinism

• Physiognomy:
• The study of facial feature and

their relation to human behavior

• Giambattisti della Porta (1535-
• Believed criminals had large lips &

sharp vision

• Phrenology:
• Posited that bumps on the head

were indications of
psychological propensities.

• Franz Joseph Gall (1776-1832)



Cesare Lombroso
tied Comte’s positivism



Chapter Two: Defining Crimes and
Measuring Criminal Behavior

-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013,
2018 & 2022); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015, 2018

& 2022).

Scared Straight Program – 1978 Rahway Max Prison

-Politically motivated –fit the get tough on crime bill

-Three year post experiment study shows evidence must be evidence based

-Criminologists embrace a systematic empirical study of the nature and extent of crime.

Example of successful criminology research based policy:

-Domestic violence research between 1981-82 shows police counseling and temporary separation was
not effective.

-Now there are more mandatory arrest being made.

7 Basic Requirements for an Act to be a Crime
Defense must prove failure of a basic requirement

• 1. The act requirement – mind & Body
• Conscious act not an unconscious act or reaction
• Not a status or condition

• 2. The legality requirement – prohibited by law
• Thoughts without action – no crime
• Choosing to not fill out sex registration forms – is a crime
• Good Samaritan?

• 3. The harm requirement

• 4. The causation requirement
• Behavior in question caused the harm – not a 3rd party

• 5. The mens rea requirement (guilty mind)

• 6. The concurrence requirement
• Must be a criminal act with criminal intent (Ex: striker – rock –window)
• Exceptions – felony murder

• 7. The punishment requirement – its must already exist



Criminal defense negates basic ingredients of

• Crime – must be known to the police

• Not all crimes reported are cleared

• DA will not always prosecute

• Defense negation of crime elements examples:
• Insanity defense; legality requirement lacking; duress, self-defense.

• State tries cases on behalf of the state
• Victims can file civil law suits for pain and suffering

Typologies of Crime

• The French created the following three categories accepted
• Felonies – severe

• Misdemeanors – minor

• Violation – fines

• As Criminologist we will also focus on the following
• Violent crime

• Crimes against property

• White collar and corporate crime

• Drug, alcohol and sex-related crime



Reasons for Measuring Crime

• Researchers collect and analyze data to test theories about why
people commit crime.

• Researchers and criminal justice agencies need to enhance their
knowledge of the characteristics of various types of offenses.

• Criminal justice agencies depend on certain information to facilitate
daily operations and anticipate future needs.

The Research Process

• Topic – research question

• Theory: is a set of principles that explain how 2 or more phenomena
are related
• May choose to use a hypothesis or not.

• Methodology (qualitative vs. quantitative)
• Will you use secondary data or primary data

• Analysis
• What did you do, findings, discussions and conclusions



Exploring and def



American Policing and Court

-Slides and data in this outline are from Siegel
(2015); Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007); and

modified by Manning (2007, & 2015).

The Criminal Justice System overview

• The Process of Justice
– From initial contact, through post-release

• Crime committed – investigation

• Police make arrest based on probable cause

• Booking (custody) fingerprinting and investigation

• Grand jury hands down its indictment

• Arraignment: formal charges & rights read to defendant

• Bail or detention

• Plea bargaining

• Trial process/adjudication

• Sentencing/disposition

• Appeals

• Correctional treatment

• Release

• Post release/aftercare. if early release on parole.

England’s Policing History

• 1829, Sir Robert Peels created the
Metropolitan Constabulary in London.

– So successful all counties were required to have
them by 1856.

– Police officers must have a perfect command of

– Critics said these agencies were created to control
the poor.



American Policing History

• Colonial America

– Used system like England’s

• America’s first uniformed police

– Boston in 1838 and New York in 1844

• Progressive Era – lead by T. Roosevelt

– 1895—tried to reform police by removing them from

• Today more than 20,000 separate agencies in US

– 708,022 sworn officers

Federal Law Enforcement

• First Federal police force 1790
– US Coast Guard.

• Federal Bureau of Investigation
– Investigate domestic terrorism, white collar crime,

organized crime, public corruption.
– Named FBI in 1935 under J. Edger Hoover
– Chief investigative branch of Depart of Justice.

• Captured Baby Face Nelson, Pretty Boy Floyd.

– Image tarnished
• 1960s wire tapping, opening mail
• 1993 handling of WACO TX Branch Davidians.

Federal Policing cont’d

• Drug Enforcement Administration DEA

• Immigration and Naturalization Service

– INS largest group of federal police.

– Now called ICE:

• US Immigration and Customs Enforcement

• United States Marshall Service

– Witness protection, federal court security

• Treasury Department: Secret Service



Department of
Homeland Security

• Five divisions created after 911:

– Border and Transportation Security

– Emergency Preparedness & Response

• Make sure were prepared and able to recover from

– Science and Technology

– Information Analysis and Infrastructure

– Management

State, County and Municipal Law

• State Police
– 1st was Texas Ranger 1835
– Today only Hawaii without state police

• Highway Patrol
• County Police (Sheriff’s Department)

– Tax assessment & collection, court duty, run jails,
serve court orders, oversee public buildings, highways,
bridges and parks.

• City Police
– 24 hour service not the norm in small town
– New York City has over 72,000 officers operating at a

cost of about $2.5 trillion

Special Purpose Policing
and Private Police

• Special Purpose Polic



Chapter 12:
-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013,

2018, & 2022); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015, 2018,
& 2022).

White Collar and Corporate Crime.

White Collar Crime defined

• Edwin H. Sutherland, 1940 defines White Collar Crime:
• Crime “committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the

course of his occupation”.
• Not Corporation inclusive!

• A violation of the law committed by a person or group of persons in the
course of an otherwise respected and legitimate occupation or business.



White Collar Crime Laws and policies

• Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
• Adopts provisions to deter and punish corporate and accounting fraud and


• Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act 2010.
• Consolidates regulatory agencies

• Created an oversight council to evaluate systematic risk

• Enacted comprehensive regulation of financial markets.
• Increased transparency of derivatives

• Passed consumer protection reforms

• Gave authority to wind down bankrupt firms

• Increased the effect of international standards and cooperation

Occupational Crimes

• Committed by individuals for themselves in the course of rendering a
• Medicare fraud, misuse of clients’ funds by lawyers and brokers, and

substitution of inferior goods.



Types of White Collar Crimes
• Securities-related crimes

• Churning: practice of trading a client’s shares of stock frequently in order to generate
large commissions.

• Ponzi schemes: Broker takes client funds with promise of high return.
• hides funds in various banks Create fake investment charts
• Works until more want out then new investors can support.
• Bernard Madoff 65 billion, June 29, 2009 150 years in prison

• Insider Trading: Use of material, nonpublic financial information to obtain an unfair
advantage in trading securities.

• Stock manipulation: Trading stocks at low prices and making misleading statements
to clients.
• Some stocks are traded at very low prices.
• Which creates an artificial demand for the stocks.

• Boiler rooms: operations run by stock manipulators.
• Who manipulate uninformed individuals into buying stocks in obscure and poorly financed


Types of White Collar Crimes continued

• Bankruptcy Fraud: Scams designed to take advantage of loopholes in the
bankruptcy laws.
• EX: Old company scam where employee bilks system for assets then files chapter 11.

10% of all bankruptcy claims include fraud. 2/3rds involve hidden assets.

• Fraud against government
• Collusion in bidding
• Payoffs and kickbacks to government officials
• Expenditures by a government official that exceed the budget
• Filing false claims

• Inflate cost to hide waste or corruption

• Hiring of friends or associates formerly employed by the government.
• Dick Chainy ties to Halliburton and a closed bid contract to rebuil



Chapter 13: Public Order Crimes
-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013 &

2018); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015 & 2018).

Drug abuse and crime

Alcohol and crime

Sexual morality offenses

Law and Morality

• Public Order Crimes
• Behavior that is outlawed because it threatens the general well-being of

society and challenges its accepted moral principles.

• Sometimes referred to as victimless crimes.
• Drug and alcohol use, prostitution, pornography and even gambling.

• Censorship of those freely choosing to engage maybe a violation of free
• Which may lead to dissent

• Moral Crusaders say it doesn’t diminish freedom of opinion.

Law and Morality

• Criminal or Immoral?
• Social harm

• Immoral acts can be distinguished from crimes on the basis of the injury they cause:

• Acts that cause harm or injury are outlawed and punished as crimes.

• Acts, even those that are vulgar, offensive, and depraved are not outlawed or punished if they
harm no one.

• 500,000 US deaths per year due to alcohol and tobacco

• Immoral yet legal and regulated by our government.

• Marijuana is nonfatal and sold for medical purposes

• Should laws be applied to shape social morality?

• What about polygamy, or minors and marriage?

• Why is prostitution illegal?



Substance Abuse: when did it begin?

• Egypt – use of opium
• Religion 3,500 BC; Painkiller 1,600 AD

• USE – Use begins for medical purposes
• Opium (Morphine and Codeine)
• Used to treat a wide variety of illness
• Civil War morphine = Soldiers disease
• 1860s cocaine to unblock sinues.

• Alcohol and its prohibition
• January 16, 1920, the 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale and

transportation of alcoholic beverages.
• Women’s Christian Temperance Union
• American Anti-Saloon League (Carrie Nation).

• December 5, 1933, the 21st Amendment to the Constitution repealed 18th.

Stats on drug abuse

• Extent of substance abuse
• Alcohol abuse in USA national high school studies: approximately 52%

• Binge drinking – 5x once per month 23%

• Heavy drinking – 5 per night 5 x per month 6%

• NHS surveys show:
• Drug abuse declined between 1970-1990

• Increased until 1996

• 2007 till now marijuana rose to an all time high

• Major issues: K2 and spice is synthetic marijuana (not plant based)

• Overall drug used peaked in 1970s, decreased till 1990s and now steady.
• Exceptions: Marijuana and Heroin (US epidemic) has increased since 2011

Drug abuse linked to crime

• Substance abuse appears to be heavily linked to crime.
• Adolescents who use illegal drugs engage in more fights and theft.
• 40% incarcerated adults for violence crimes used alcohol before arrest.
• Alcohol reduces restraint on aggression
• Alcohol reduces awareness of consequences

• Drunk driving

• There are different kinds of drug users but not all commit crimes.

• There are differences in criminality

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