FOCUS – ADDRESSING BIAS AND RACISM OF BLACK MEN IN LEADERSHIP AND EMPLOYMENT
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Baker, V. L., & Pifer, M. J. (2011). The role of relationships in the transition from doctor to independent scholar. Studies in Continuing Education, 33(1), 5-17. http://doi.org/10.1080/0158037X. 2010.515569
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Journal of Nonverbal Behavior (2019) 43:435–449
O R I G I N A L PA P E R
Individual Differences Correspond with Attention to the Eyes
of White Versus Black Faces
Brittany S. Cassidy1 · Samuel M. Harding2 · Kristie Y. Hsu2 · Anne C. Krendl2
Published online: 20 June 2019
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019
Black, relative to White, individuals have experienced discrimination for centuries in the
United States. Recent work suggests that subtle differences in how novel Black faces are
initially perceived relate to prejudicial behavior. One such difference is that non-Black peo-
ple attend more to the eyes of White versus Black novel faces. The present study sought to
better characterize this difference by assessing how distinct individual differences widely
shown to relate to prejudicial behavior—internal motivation to respond without prejudice
(IMS), external motivation to respond without prejudice (EMS), and implicit race bias—
relate to disparities in attending to the eyes of novel Black and White faces. Participants
viewed novel Black and White faces one at a time on the right or left side of the display.
Replicating a race-based disparity in visual attention to the eyes, non-Black perceivers fix-
ated more on the eyes of White in comparison to Black faces. Individual differences among
perceivers corresponded with the extent of this race-based disparity. IMS had a negative
relationship with a race-based disparity in attention to the eyes, such that higher levels of
IMS among perceivers corresponded with lower disparities in attention. Implicit race bias
had a positive relationship with this disparity, such that higher levels of implicit race bias
among perceivers corresponded with higher disparities in attention. Together, these find-
ings illustrate that two individual differences known to affect prejudicial behavior are asso-
ciated with preferential gaze patterns in visual attention toward faces on the basis of race.
Keywords Face perception · Visual attention · Race · Internal motivation to respond
without prejudice · Implicit race bias
Black individuals have long been subjected to discriminatory treatment in the United
States (e.g., Cuddy et al. 2007; Goff et al. 2008, 2014). Because Black Americans’ expe-
riences with prejudice are linked to myriad negative consequences (for a review, see
* Brittany S. Cassidy
1 Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 296 Eberhart, PO
Box 26180, Greensboro, NC 27412, USA
2 Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
436 Journal of Nonverbal Behavior (2019) 43:435–449
Mays et al. 2007), understanding the mechanisms that predicate their prejudicial treat-
ment can provide importa
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