FOCUS – ADDRESSING BIAS AND RACISM OF BLACK MEN IN LEADERSHIP AND EMPLOYMENT
This is NOT A SUMMARY this needs to be an ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Use the Attached Template and structure an annotated bibliography APA 7th edition format of the Article attached
YOU CAN ONLY COMPILE INFORMATION FROM THE ARTICLE ATTACHED!!!!
EXAMPLE OF ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Example Reference Format
Baker, V. L., & Pifer, M. J. (2011). The role of relationships in the transition from doctor to independent scholar. Studies in Continuing Education, 33(1), 5-17. http://doi.org/10.1080/0158037X. 2010.515569
Provide a reference and an annotation (150-250 words) that includes important details about the article for each of the sources.
Annotations are descriptive and critical assessments of literature that help researchers evaluate texts and determine relevancy in relation to a research project. Ultimately, it is a note-taking tool that fosters critical thinking and helps you evaluate the source material for possible later use. Instead of reading articles and forgetting what you have read, you have a convenient document full of helpful information. An annotated bibliography can help you see the bigger picture of the literature you are reading. It can help you visualize the overall status of the topic, as well as where your unique question might fit into the field of literature.
AT THE END OF THE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY EXPLAIN WHY THIS ARTICLE IS RELEVANT TO THE STRUGGLES OF BLACK MEN IN LEADERSHIP POSITIONS IN AMERICA
F E A T U R E A R T I C L E
Mentoring leaders across race and gender lines: Insight
from US Army officers
Burl W. Randolph, Jr. | Kim Nisbett
The importance of mentoring to career development is well recognized; yet practice
does not always follow theory, often to the exclusion of minorities and women.
Interviews with 13 US Army officers representing various backgrounds highlighted
several inequities that have been reported in previous organizational research. The
inquiry also emphasized the need for organizational leaders to create a common
operating picture to improve the execution of their mentoring programs, ensure
ongoing mentoring throughout staff members’ careers, and identify and eliminate
barriers to mentoring based on race or gender. Although such efforts may require a
paradigm shift in organizational practices and culture, they are essential to ensuring
equity in the workplace, robust leadership development, a high level of commit-
ment and performance, and success at all levels.
1 | INTRODUCTION
Organizational leadership development programs can take
various forms. In the US Army, the counseling-coaching-
mentoring method is commonly used (Army Doctrine Refer-
ence Publication, 2012). Yet, there is a serious lack of mentoring
for women and other minorities serving in the Army. This hin-
ders not only their ability to improve their performance, but
also their opportunities for advancement and long-term success.
In the US Army, captains serve as mid-level leaders—like
department, branch, or regional managers in corporate organi-
zations. Selection to major is a significant achievement for an
Army officer, signifying entry into the junior executive level
and tenure. Those who are selected for major are slated for
intermediate-level education and follow-up assignments that
prepare them for senior executive positions (Department of the
Army, 2014). Often, however, selection rates for African
American and female Army officers to junior executive are
below average (Leipold, 2012). The same holds true in acade-
mia (Dahlvig, 2010) and business (Thomas, 2001).
The lower rate of African American and female officer
selections to the Army junior executive level may have con-
tributed to an imbalance in diversity at senior Army officer
levels (Vanden Brook, 2014). Such an imbalance at the senior
level has also been identified in academic and corporate set-
tings (Barker, 2007; Johnson & Eby, 2011; Robinson & Reio,
2012). Although numerous studies have examined why this
phenomenon continues to occur (Leipold, 2012; Vanden
Brook, 2014; Vega, Yglesias, & Murray, 2010; Waymer,
2012; Westphal & Stern, 2007; Zoroya, 2014), many questions
remain concerning inadequate mentoring for African Ameri-
cans and women, and the role that race and/or gender play in
2 | IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM
Organizations identify and solve problems in different ways.
If a specific situation is not considered to be a problem for
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