Systemic review project

*For correspondence:

Competing interest: See

page 36

Funding: See page 36

Received: 09 July 2019

Accepted: 14 February 2020

Published: 24 March 2020

Reviewing editor: Eduardo

Franco, McGill University,


Copyright Jha. This article is

distributed under the terms of

the Creative Commons

Attribution License, which

permits unrestricted use and

redistribution provided that the

original author and source are


The hazards of smoking and the benefits
of cessation: A critical summation of the
epidemiological evidence in high-income
Prabhat Jha*

Centre for Global Health Research, Dalla Lana School of Public Health and Unity
Health, Toronto, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Abstract In high-income countries, the biggest cause of premature death, defined as death
before 70 years, is smoking of manufactured cigarettes. Smoking-related disease was responsible

for about 41 million deaths in the United States, United Kingdom and Canada, cumulatively, from

1960 to 2020. Every million cigarettes smoked leads to one death in the US and Canada, but

slightly more than one death in the UK. The 21st century hazards reveal that smokers who start

smoking early in adult life and do not quit lose a decade of life expectancy versus non-smokers.

Cessation, particularly before age 40 years, yields large reductions in mortality risk. Up to two-

thirds of deaths among smokers are avoidable at non-smoking death rates, and former smokers

have about only a quarter of the excess risk of death compared to current smokers. The gap

between scientific and popular understanding of smoking hazards is surprisingly large.

I summarize the causative role of smoking for the most common causes of death among adults in

high-income countries, drawing on data from Canada, the United States (US) and the United King-

dom (UK). The main objective of this analysis is to review the hazards of smoking and the benefits of

cessation. I do so by examining the cause, nature and extent of tobacco-related diseases in high-

income countries between 1960 and 2020. The review has seven main conclusions.

First, in much of Europe and North America, the biggest cause of premature death, defined as

death before 70 years, is smoking of manufactured cigarettes. Smoking as an important cause of

many diseases in many populations has been recognized widely in the scientific literature for the last

five decades. However, three surprising features of health hazards of smoking have been established

reliably only since about 2012. The first feature is that risk of developing disease among smokers is

big. The second feature is that for smokers to develop these big risks, they need to start smoking

early in adult life and to continue smoking. If smokers don’t start early in life, their risks are substan-

tially smaller. Third, if smokers stop smoking before they develop some serious disease, then their

risks are subst

Template for Systematic Reivew








Eligibility criteria:

Types of studies

Types of participants

Types of interventions ((if applicable)

Types of outcome measures

Search Strategy and Information Sources

Methods of the Review (data collection process):

Assessment of methodological quality

Data extraction

Data synthesis


Description of the selected studies

Methodological quality

Results of individual studies:




Implications for practice

Implications for research

3/16/2022 Page 2 of 2



Question 1: PICOT

P= The research will use secondary research conducted within the last 10 years.
I= A systematic research review method will be applied to provide a review of the existing research regarding the topic.
C= Comparison between the mortality rates between active smokers and non-smokers who quit smoking before age 4
O= Determine impacts of smoking on mortality rates of individuals.
T= The time needed for the research is one and half months to complete an adequate review of existing research.

Question 2: Objective
Determine the risks of smoking and advantages of ceasing the habit.


Due to the persistence of the smoking behaviors within the contemporary society, there is an increase in awareness regarding the hazardousness of the behavior. The research aims at increasing advocacy against by incorporating various research results regarding adverse health impacts of smoking to provide a more generalizable result for reducing smoking behaviors, especially among the young populations.

Please use the attached article to prepare 17-18 slide power points with 6 references

Please use the attached article to write 6-8 pages paper APA format summarizing the article, the objective of the article, the population targeted and the benefits or impact of smoking . 4 references.

Why Choose Us

  • 100% non-plagiarized Papers
  • 24/7 /365 Service Available
  • Affordable Prices
  • Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject
  • Will complete your papers in 6 hours
  • On-time Delivery
  • Money-back and Privacy guarantees
  • Unlimited Amendments upon request
  • Satisfaction guarantee

How it Works

  • Click on the “Place Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT & SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.