Read the following 3 articles and synthesize (Combine the ideas of all three sources into one overall point – DO NOT SUMMARIZE)  them into 1 and half page word document. Also, write a well elaborated question from each reading. Keep in mind the following points when working on this task:
*Questions must be original, thought and not easily found in the articles.
*Follow APA Rules
*Use proper citations
*Use  PAST TENSE when discussing the articles  (Research already took place)
*DO NOT USE the following words: Me, you, I, we.
*Refer to the articles by their AUTHORS (year of publication) 
*DO NOT the article name or  words first, second, or third.

Two Factor Model of ASD Symptoms
One of the key factors in determining whether an individual has Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is in their social and communication skills. Individuals who are diagnosed with ASD have delayed joint attention, eye gazing, and other social interactions such as pointing (Swain et al., 2014).
Joint attention is an important social skill to master because it is a building block for developing theory of mind which, helps us to understand other’s perspectives. Korhonen et al. (2014) found that individuals with autism have impaired joint attention. However, some did not show impairment in joint attention, which lead to evidence that suggests there are different trajectories for joint attention. One suggestion as to why Korhonen et al. (2014) found mixed results, is that there is evidence that joint attention may not be directly linked to individuals with ASD since they were unable to find a difference in joint attention between ASD and developmentally delayed (DD) individuals. Another suggestion for the mixed results, is individual interest in the task vary. Research has found that while individualized studies are beneficial in detecting personal potential and abilities, it would be difficult to generalize the study in order to further research to ASD as a whole (Korhonen et al., 2014). In addition to joint attention, atypical gaze shifts is a distinguishing factor in individuals with ASD. Swain et al. (2014) found the main difference between typically developing (TD) and ASD individuals in the first 12 months of life is in gaze shifts. Individuals that were diagnosed with ASD earlier had lower scores on positive affect, joint attention, and gaze shifts, however those diagnosed later differed from typically developing (TD) only in gaze shifts. It is not until 24 months that later onset ASD individuals significantly differ from their TD peers, by displaying lower positive affect and gestures (Swain et al., 2014). These findings may lead to other ASD trajectories.
Another defining characteristic of ASD is the excess of restrictive patterns of interest and repetitive motor movements. These patterns and movements often impaired the individual from completing daily tasks. Like joint attention and gaze shifts, these repetitive movements and patterns of interest have different trajectories (Joseph et al., 2013). Joseph et al. (2013) found that individuals with high cognitive functioning ASD engage in more distinct and specific interests and less in repetitive motor movements than individuals with lower cognitive functioning ASD. Another finding showed that at the age of two, repetitive motor and play patterns were more common than compulsion. By the age of four all these behaviors increased however, repetitive use of specific objects was found to be less frequent in older children than younger children. This finding suggests that the ritualistic behaviors and motor movements may present themselves differently based on the age

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Child & Family Behavior Therapy

ISSN: 0731-7107 (Print) 1545-228X (Online) Journal homepage:

Critical Issues in Causation and Treatment of
Autism: Why Fads Continue to Flourish

Mary E. McDonald PhD , Darra Pace EdD , Elfreda Blue PhD & Diane Schwartz

To cite this article: Mary E. McDonald PhD , Darra Pace EdD , Elfreda Blue PhD & Diane
Schwartz EdD (2012) Critical Issues in Causation and Treatment of Autism: Why Fads Continue to
Flourish, Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 34:4, 290-304, DOI: 10.1080/07317107.2012.732849

To link to this article:

Published online: 06 Nov 2012.

Submit your article to this journal

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Citing articles: 8 View citing articles


Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 34:290–304, 2012
Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 0731-7107 print/1545-228X online
DOI: 10.1080/07317107.2012.732849

Critical Issues in Causation and Treatment
of Autism: Why Fads Continue to Flourish


Department of Counseling, Research, Special Education, and Rehabilitation,
Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York, USA

The increasing incidence of autism and the lack of specific answers
regarding causation have given rise to unproven educational
interventions and medical treatments. Parents of a newly diagnosed
child can easily fall prey to interventions that promise cures. These
interventions may be harmful and, thus, pose one of the critical
issues in special education today. This article will discuss some of
the suspect interventions that have been popularized through the
media (i.e., celebrities, journalists, and professional organizations).
The authors argue that using the scientific method is clearly the
antidote for pseudoscience; the need for accurate research-based
decision making is apparent.

KEYWORDS autism spectrum disorders, evidence-based practice,
diet, intervention, parent

The ever-increasing prevalence of autism highlights a major reason for
public concern. Worldwide, this disorder affects children, regardless of
race, religion, and socioeconomic status. Currently, autism occurs in 1 in



utism spectrum disorders
(ASD) are among the most
puzzling forms of develop-

mental disability. This term refers to
a spectrum of pervasive developmen-
tal disorders sharing defi cits in three
major domains: social relatedness and
interactivity, communication, and re-
stricted interests and/or stereotypic or
repetitive behaviors with diffi cult tran-
sitions. Studies have investigated ge-
netic factors, neurologic, immunologic,

Scientifi cally Unsupported Therapies
in the Treatment of Young Children with

Autism Spectrum Disorders
Merryl A. Schechtman, MD

1. Identify the domains of comple-
mentary and alternative therapy.

2. Describe the basis for the brain-gut
connection hypothesis in autism
spectrum disorders.

3. Discuss sensory issues in children
with autism and sensory integra-
tion therapy.

Merryl A. Schechtman, MD, is Assistant

Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Albert Ein-

stein College of Medicine, Infant Preschool

Unit, Children’s Evaluation and Rehabili-

tation Center, Rose F. Kennedy Center.

Address correspondence to: Merryl A.

Schechtman, MD, 1410 Pelham Parkway

South, Bronx, New York 10461; fax 718-


Dr. Schechtman has disclosed no rel-

evant fi nancial relationships.










3709Schechtman.indd 6393709Schechtman.indd 639 8/30/2007 10:09:46 AM8/30/2007 10:09:46 AM


and early environmental
insults. ASD are lifelong,
often severe disorders
impacting all facets of
individual, family, and
community function. Re-
lationships are disrupted,
and socially inappropri-
ate behaviors are promi-
nent. Often these children
do not cope well with
change, making it diffi –
cult for families to go out
in public places. Children may become
aggressive, self-injurious, or resort to
self-stimulatory behaviors, which serve
to calm them. Although the underlying
causes of ASD have not been clarifi ed,
several promising interventions have
been developed utilizing behavioral
techniques, educational programs, and
pharmacotherapy to address the symp-
toms of this disorder. The prognosis for
truly normal function is guarded, even
with availability of standard therapies,
a factor often leading to parental des-
peration and the willingness to invest
in newer approaches to treatment. Ef-
fective evidence-based services may
also not be available or in short supply.
Standard therapies may require much
time to see progress, and therefore
some parents may be willing to grasp at
the promise of a “quick fi x.”

Scientifi cally unsupported therapies
lack a foundation based on objective,
controlled research, using methods
standardized within biological or medi-
cal science. Therapies such as these are
often used either in conjunction with
evidence-based medical treatments
(complementary therapies) or might be

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

journal homepage:

A systematic review of factors related to parents’ treatment
decisions for their children with autism spectrum disorders

Meghan Wilson⁎, David Hamilton, Thomas Whelan, Pamela Pilkington
School of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, 115 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy VIC 3065, Australia


Number of reviews completed is 2

Autism spectrum disorder
Treatment decisions
Systematic review


Background: There are many treatment options for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
(ASD). Misinformation and easy access to ineffective treatments complicates the decision-making
process for parents. Research on implicit factors (e.g., parent or child characteristics) and de-
clared factors (e.g., parent-reported reasons) contributes to an understanding of what influences
these decisions.
Method: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the significance of factors associated
with treatment selection. The review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA protocol.
Results: The search revealed 51 studies which contained data on implicit and/or declared factors
associated with treatment selection. The data were tabulated by factor and synthesised. The
severity of a child’s behavioural problems, parental stress, and parent beliefs about ASD were
consistently identified as implicit factors associated with the use of particular treatments. A wide
range of reasons for treatment choices were declared by parent respondents, including; the in-
dividual needs of their child, recommendations from others, practical reasons (e.g., cost), child
age, hope for recovery, hope for improvement, and concerns about side-effects.
Conclusion: A better understanding of these factors will inform targeted educational approaches
which encourage evidence-based practice and a more informed view of treatments not yet sup-
ported by research.

1. Introduction

Following a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), parents are encouraged to access an intervention for their child. This
can be challenging given that there are many options. Green et al. (2006) identified 111 different treatments for ASD. The list
included a wide range of options such as dietary interventions (e.g., restricted diets or vitamin supplements), other alternative
therapies (e.g., detoxification treatments), educational or clinical approaches (e.g., Applied Behaviour Analysis programs or speech
therapy), and combined programs (e.g., Floor Time). The commitment of resources (e.g., time or cost) and ease of implementation
can vary greatly between approaches (Green, 2007). The selection of interventions is further complicated in that it is common for
professionals to recommend treatments that are not evidence-based (Miller, Schreck, Mulick, & Butter, 2012) and the internet
provides a forum fo

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