· Each answer should refer to at least one author/text discussed 
· Each answer should be approximately 250 words long.
· To have full credit, you must cite at least two authors discussed in class.
· Avoid direct quotations. Use your own words. 
1. Why did “modernization” only occur in some regions of the world and not others? 
2. How have external actors affected developing countries’ ability to reduce domestic inequalities?3



Anti-Globalization: Why?

lobalization first became a buzzword. Davos and the New York
Times columnist Thomas Friedman celebrated its virtues, its
inevitability. But then came the anti-globalizers. Globalization

then became a more conventional four-letter word. The Ruckus Society
and the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu proclaimed its vices, its

As this dialectic has unfolded, it is tempting to think that there is a
primeval curse on the phenomenon. After all, if you care to count, glo-
balization is in fact a thirteen-letter word. It has become by now a phe-
nomenon that is doomed to unending controversy, the focal point of
always hostile passions and sometimes violent protests. It is surely a de-
fining issue as we move further into the new century. The reasons this
has happened cry out for comprehension. Without such understanding,
and then informed refutation of the fears and follies that animate the
anti-globalizers, we cannot adequately defend the globalization that many
of us seek to sustain, even deepen.1

What is the globalization that is in contention? Globalization can
mean many things. Here, however, I plan to focus exclusively on eco-
nomic globalization; indeed, that is what I shall mean when I simply say
“globalization” throughout this book. Economic globalization consti-
tutes integration of national economies into the international economy
through trade, direct foreign investment (by corporations and multina-
tionals), short-term capital flows, international flows of workers and
humanity generally, and flows of technology: phenomena defined and
treated more fully below.

Economic globalization is the favored target of many of the critics
of globalization. It is distinct from other aspects of globalization, such


as cultural globalization (which is affected, as I shall discuss in Chapter
9, by economic globalization) and communications (which is among
the factors that cause the deepening of economic globalization).

Why are the critics of globalization agitated? What bothers them?
There are two main groups that need to be distinguished, and I shall
develop this distinction and build systematically on it below. First, there
is a multitude of hard-core protesters who have deep-seated antipathy
to globalization. They come from different intellectual and ideological
directions and do not all share the same ideas and sentiments. But many
buy into a linked trilogy of discontents that take the form successively of
an ethos composed of an anti-capitalist, anti-globalization, and acute
anti-corporation mind-set.2 These views are interlinked because global-
ization is seen as the extension of capitalism throughout the world,
whereas multinational corporations are seen as the B-52s of capitalism
and its global reach.3 Beyond understanding where their discontents come
from, as I do presently, there is little that one can do to enter into a dia-
logue with them.

Second, however,

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