need language analysis for an english articleSchool Effects on Psychological Outcomes During Adolescence

Eric M. Anderman
University of Kentucky

Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine school-level
differences in the relations between school belonging and various outcomes. In Study 1, predictors of
belonging were examined. Results indicated that belonging was lower in urban schools than in suburban
schools, and lower in schools that used busing practices than those that did not. In Study 2, the relations
between belonging and psychological outcomes were examined. The relations varied depending on the
unit of analysis (individual vs. aggregated measures of belonging). Whereas individual students’
perceptions of belonging were inversely related to depression, social rejection, and school problems,
aggregated belonging was related to greater reports of social rejection and school problems and to higher
grade point average.

Research on school-level differences during adolescence often
has focused on nonpsychological outcomes, such as academic
achievement and behavioral issues, instead of on psychological
outcomes (Roeser, 1998). Indeed, research on school-level differ-
ences in nonacademic variables is quite rare. The purpose of the
present research was to examine school-level differences in a
variety of psychological outcomes, using a large nationally repre-
sentative sample of adolescents.

School Effects on Student Outcomes

Although there is an abundant literature on effective schools,
most of the research in this literature has focused on academic
variables, such as achievement, dropping out, and grade point
average (GPA; e.g., Edmonds, 1979; Miller, 1985; Murphy, Weil,
Hallinger, & Mitman, 1985). This literature generally indicates
that schools that are academically effective have certain recogniz-
able characteristics.

Some of these studies have examined differences between pub-
lic schools and other types of schools. For example, some research
indicates that students who attend public schools achieve more
academically than do students who attend other types of schools
(e.g., Coleman & Hoffer, 1987). Other research suggests that there
may be a benefit in terms of academic achievement for students
who attend Catholic schools compared with non-Catholic schools
(Bryk, Lee, & Holland, 1993). Lee and her colleagues (Lee,
Chow-Hoy, Burkam, Geverdt, & Smerdon, 1998) found that stu-
dents who attended private schools took more advanced math
courses than did students who attended public schools. However,
they also found specific benefits for Catholic schools: Specifically,
in Catholic schools, there was greater school influence on the
courses that students took, and the social distribution of course
enrollment was found to be particularly equitable.

In recent years, psychologists have started to become interested
in the effects of schooling on mental health outcomes (e.g., Boe-
kaerts, 1993; Cowen, 1991; Roeser, Eccles, & Strobel, 1998;
Rutter, 198Poojita Kondur
EAP 506
Dr. Shannon Tumanut
November 9, 2022
Language Analysis Draft
Writing conventions are not always the same in every field of study. Because of this, it is important to become aware of the common language and grammar choices commonly followed in your field of study. This will help understand and learn more about scholarly writing as readers and writers. The article “Investigating changes in salivary microbiota due to dental treatment: A metagenomic analysis study for forensic purposes”, depicts some of the features found in the field of Forensic Science.
In accordance with the Swales and Feak (2012) description of level of formality, the language is formal. First person pronouns such as “I or we” are limited and used in the abstract to explain the work conducted by the researchers in collaboration. For instance, “In the present study, we compared the microbiota compositions present in the saliva of individuals with active dental caries before and after treatment from a forensic and clinical perspective using an approach based on the sequencing of all the variable regions (V1-V9) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene” (Gül, F., Karadayı, S., Yurdabakan, Z., Özbek, T., & Karadayı, B., 2022). However, the “we” pronoun is more commonly observed than the “I” pronoun to show collective efforts made by the writers. Pronouns in the field of Forensic Science are either entirely omitted or confined to specific sections of the paper such as the abstract, discussion, or conclusion. This may be observed to refer to the group of researchers while methods and results mainly focus on the research and not the researchers. In addition, contractions, vague phrases, “you” pronoun, and phrasal verbs are not used as they would less formal, distract the audience, and cause confusion while reading. Questions were not included in this article either indirectly, directly, or as a part of Move 3. However, questions in Forensics if present, are addressed either indirectly or in the form of research questions. Another language feature is the use of adverbs. Adverbs are positioned in the middle of the sentence to maintain formality and flow of context for example, “Methods that are based on identifying polymorphisms in the human DNA are frequently used to solve forensic cases” (Gül et al., 2022). They are also used as split infinitives between “to” and the verb such as in the example, “Thus, using this technique makes it possible to comprehensively examine the composition of microbial communities, especially at the species level, and examine the differences between the salivary microbial flora of a healthy oral cavity and that of an oral cavity having caries” (Gül et al., 2022). Although split infinitives are used a lot, it depends on the context and how the authors’ wish to deliver their message. Moreover, the use of “maybe language” is used to open an idea of a result or opinion for discussion and other possibilities of reasoning.
Forensic science is a field f

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