Critically evaluate the article’s strengths, weaknesses, and contribution to the study field using the outline below as a guide write 3 pages in APA format with following sections:
Executive Summary
Literature review
Data Analysis
Results and conclusion


Journal of Management
Vol. 45 No. 8, November 2019 3091 –3113

DOI: 10.1177/0149206318779127
© The Author(s) 2018

Article reuse guidelines:

Learning off the Job: Examining Part-time
Entrepreneurs as Innovative Employees

David R. Marshall
University of Dayton

Walter D. Davis
Clay Dibrell

Anthony P. Ammeter
University of Mississippi

In this paper, we explain and examine how engaging in part-time entrepreneurship (creating
and managing side businesses while remaining employed for wages in existing organizations)
uniquely positions individuals to exhibit innovative behavior in employee roles. To study this
phenomenon, we integrate the literatures on entrepreneurial learning, knowledge and learning
transfer, and employee innovation. We hypothesize that part-time entrepreneurship provides an
opportunity for individuals to acquire knowledge and skills conducive to enacting innovative
behaviors as employees. Multilevel regression analysis of a sample of 1,221 employee responses
across 137 organizational units provides evidence to support our positive transferal hypothesis.
Further, we find that individual differences in goal orientations and work-unit climates for
innovation strengthen these relationships.

Keywords: employee innovation; part-time entrepreneurship; learning

To thrive in competitive markets, firms innovate by exploring new ideas and exploiting
existing knowledge and resources (Levinthal & March, 1993; March, 1991). Recent perspec-
tives assert that firm innovation is dependent, at least in part, on innovative behaviors exhib-
ited by employees (Gibson & Birkinshaw, 2004; Mom, Van den Bosch, & Volberda, 2007;
Raisch & Birkinshaw, 2008). However, the contexts and mechanisms through which employ-
ees learn knowledge, skills, and abilities leading to innovative behavior at work are less clear
(Gibson & Birkinshaw; O’Reilly & Tushman, 2013). Beyond developing new skills within

Corresponding author: David R. Marshall, University of Dayton, 300 College Park Dr., Dayton, OH 45469, USA.


779127 JOMXXX10.1177/0149206318779127Journal of ManagementMarshall et al. / Learning off the Job

3092 Journal of Management / November 2019

one’s employee role, studies suggest abilities can also be developed outside primary work
roles (e.g., Eriksson & Ortega, 2006). In this study, we advance the intriguing possibility that
employees engaged in entrepreneurial venturing activities outside of (in addition to) wage-
employment roles are uniquely positioned to develop, refine, and transfer innovative capa-
bilities from entrepreneurial to employee roles.

We introduce part-time entrepreneurship as a context and entr

Why Choose Us

  • 100% non-plagiarized Papers
  • 24/7 /365 Service Available
  • Affordable Prices
  • Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject
  • Will complete your papers in 6 hours
  • On-time Delivery
  • Money-back and Privacy guarantees
  • Unlimited Amendments upon request
  • Satisfaction guarantee

How it Works

  • Click on the “Place Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT & SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.