SCI260 – Introduction to Biochemistry
Lesson #1

Biochemistry involves the production and degradation of biological molecules such as
nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and vitamins. Changes in the production or
degradation of these important molecules can cause disorders and diseases in humans.

For each of the human disorders and diseases listed below, indicate whether it is caused
by a change in: (A) nucleic acids (for example: DNA or RNA); (B) amino acids/proteins;
(C) lipids (for example: cholesterol or triglycerides); (D) carbohydrates/sugars; or (E)
vitamins. Provide only one (1) answer for each disease.

1. Phenylketonuria: _____
2. Diabetes: _____
3. Fragile X syndrome: _____
4. Galactosemia: _____
5. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: _____
6. Pellagra: _____
7. Tay-Sachs disease: _____
8. Tangier disease: _____
9. Spina bifida and anencephaly: _____
10. Friedreich’s ataxia: _____

You may use your textbook and/or the internet to assist you. You will earn 10 points for
correctly answering each question (maximum points earned = 100 points).

SCI260 – Introduction to Biochemistry
Task #1

Go to your local grocery store and find four (4) foods that are created through genetic
modification (genetic engineering). Briefly describe how the food was created and provide a
picture of the food. Below are two examples (please do not use these examples).

Yukon Gold Potato
These potatoes were created by intentionally crossbreeding a North American white potato and
a wild South American yellow-fleshed potato.

Artic Apple
These apples were developed to have a non-browning trait. This trait is created through a
process called gene silencing, which reduces the apple’s natural production of the polyphenol
oxidase enzyme thereby preventing the fruit from browning.

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